The Protein Book: A Complete Guide for the Athlete and Coach Paperback – November 20, The Protein Book: A Complete Guide for the Athlete and Coach examines the topic of protein nutrition for both endurance and strength/power athletes. His other books The Ultimate Diet Consuming the proper amounts, types and timing of protein can impact on all aspects of strength and endurance performance, along with recovery, immune. The Protein Book is a comprehensive look at the issue of protein intake for both strength/power and endurance athletes. Coaches looking for the latest scientific.
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Title, The Protein Book: A Complete Guide for the Athlete and Coach. Author, Lyle McDonald. Publisher, Lyle McDonald, download a cheap copy of The Protein Book: A Complete Guide for by Lyle McDonald . Free shipping over $ The Paperback of the The Protein Book: A Complete Guide for the Athlete and Coach by Lyle McDonald at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on.
The word protein even comes from the Greek word 'proteos' meaning 'the first', signifying its primary importance in human nutrition.
For while the human body can go indefinitely without carbohydrate intake, and an extremely long time with zero fat intake, insufficient protein for extended periods leads to rapid death.
And while endurance athletes have traditionally ignored protein intake in favor of massive carbohydrate intakes, recent research is identifying important benefits of protein for those types of athletes as well. Moreso when the advertisement shows a professional bodybuilder, who probably lives on chicken breast and tuna fish just like everybody else, claiming that the powder was the secret of his success.
Yet outside of sports nutrition, when you enter the world of the mainstream, protein seems to be the redheaded stepchild of the nutrition world. Too much is bad for you, gives you kidney problems, destroys your bones, people already eat too much of it and you needn't go out of your way to eat more; I imagine readers have heard it all before.
Between those two extremes, where everyone seems to have a hidden or not so hidden agenda, it can be nearly impossible for a well meaning athlete, who simply wants to ensure that they are optimally supporting their training, to determine the truth of the matter. Coaches want to ensure that their athletes training and nutrition are both optimal and run into similar problems regarding the question of protein intake. My goal in writing this book is to help both athletes and coaches find their way through a minefield of conflicting and often contradictory information.
By the time you're finished, even if you can't get anything else right with your sports nutrition, you should be able to ensure that your protein intake in terms of type, amount and timing of intake is not limiting your ability to improve. Now, you won't find me telling you that a given type or source of protein is singularly the best.
Most, if not all, questions in nutrition or training or supplements for that matter depend on context; the same is true for training and supplements. The answer to 'What is best? This book covers a tremendous amount of information ranging from basic physiology and digestion to specific application.
I'll start with some technical definitions prior to discussing digestion and basic protein metabolism. The next chapters will discuss the issues of protein quality, protein and amino acid requirements. Timing of protein around training is an area of intense research interest and is discussed in some detail; I'll address some of the most common controversies surrounding protein intake as well.
Much of the information in the first half of the book is fairly technical; by the time you're done reading it, you should be able to critically read any advertisements or nutritional claims that you see. If you someone making a claim that goes distinctly against what the research into the topic says, you can probably be safely assured that their motives have more to do with separating you from your money than in helping you succeed as an athlete.
Following the more technically oriented chapters, I next examine whole food proteins; for each I'll discuss where you can find it in food, what advantages or disadvantages it might have for an athlete and topics of that nature.
Again, you won't find me saying that any single protein is the best; all proteins have pros and cons and I'll discuss each. After looking at dietary proteins, I'll examine protein powders which have been a staple of athletic nutrition for decades now. The discussion will be similar to the chapter on whole proteins; I'll look at each protein powder in terms of its pros and cons, along with examining when any given powder might best be used during the day or around training.
In the next chapter, I'll look at some of the currently popular amino acid supplements which may or may not have benefits to athletes. Finally, I'll talk about overall application and how to put together all of the previous information depending on the type of sport you're involved in and your goals.
Definitions and Basic Background In this chapter, I want to briefly discuss what protein is, where it is found in the diet, and what it is used for in the body. I'll also discuss the difference between essential and nonessential also called indispensable and dispensable amino acids as well as looking at the issue of complete and incomplete proteins.
What is protein?
Proteins are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The nitrogen part of protein is what not only makes a protein a protein but also sets it apart from both carbohydrate and fats. Humans can't fix nitrogen from the air like plants. Therefore we need a dietary source of nitrogen; we also have requirements for individual amino acids. Dietary protein provides both. Readers who have heard the term nitrogen balance thrown around may be wondering if this is the nitrogen that is being referred to and the answer is yes.
I'll talk about nitrogen balance in Chapter 4 when I discuss protein requirements. Where is dietary protein found? With the exceptions of pure sugars and fats, protein is found in some amount in almost all foods, although the amounts can vary drastically. When most people, especially athletes, think of protein foods they probably think of animal source foods such as meat and dairy.
Generally speaking, animal source foods provide the most concentrated source of protein.
Red meat, chicken, fish and pork contain essentially no carbohydrate although the fat content can vary from extremely low to extremely high depending on the type and cut of meat. Skinless chicken breast is essentially fat free, containing nothing but protein while a fatty cut of red meat may contain a significant amount of fat along with its protein.
Dairy foods such as milk, cheese and yogurt also contain significant amounts of protein w i t h highly variable amounts of carbohydrate and fat.
Full-fat cheese is high in both protein and fat while fat-free cheese is almost pure protein.
The Protein Book
Milk and yogurt contain carbohydrates in addition to the protein; fat content can vary from high to low or zero depending on whether full-fat, low-fat or skim products are chosen. There are also vegetable sources of proteins w i t h beans also called legumes being the primary source; nuts and seeds also contain protein.
Fruits and vegetables both contain trace amounts of protein as well. Since they tend to be a staple of athletic nutrition, I should discuss protein powders and supplements. In the most general terms, protein is available in supplemental form as either protein powder or free form amino acids.
Free form amino acids are simply individual amino acids, either by themselves e. L-glutamine or tyrosine or in some combination. Some companies now sell products containing powdered essential amino acids EAAs or branched chain amino acids BCAAs either alone or in combination.
These fibers mediate interactions with other bacteria, the host, and the environment. Pili often function as adhesins, dictating specific binding to and colonization of biological as well as non-biological surfaces.
As such, these fibers are critical virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria, initiating infection and determining how and where bacterial colonization may occur. This chapter will review the biogenesis of surface fibers by Gram-negative bacteria, with a focus on assembly mechanisms and machinery, and the structures of component proteins and the assembled organelles.
Sibbald and Jan Maarten van Dijl Many diseases are caused by bacteria. While most infections are easy to treat with antibiotics, various bacteria seem to gain resistance against these antibiotics very rapidly. During the infective process bacteria need to express proteins that are necessary for colonization and spreading throughout the host tissue. Other proteins are needed for protecting the bacteria against attacks from the immune system or from other bacteria that belong to the normal human microbiota.
All these proteins have to be transported across bacterial membrane s to be effective in host cell adhesion, function as agents for host cell subversion, and form protective responses to stressful conditions, for example during the process of phagocytosis.
In Gram-positive bacteria, several pathways exist to transport these proteins across membranes. The fate of the translocated proteins then depends on the presence or absence of retention signals. This chapter deals with the secretion pathways existing in Gram-positive bacteria. The focus will be on the components of translocation pathways that are known to be involved in the recognition, translocation, and further processing of extracellular proteins and in particular virulence factors.
Known pathways and current insights on new pathways will be discussed in relation to the secretion of known virulence factors. Non-Classical Secretion Jannick D. Bendtsen and Karl G.
Wooldridge Bacterial secretion of proteins is undertaken by highly complex translocation machineries actively moving the protein to be secreted across the bacterial membrane. Given the complexity of these secretion systems it is not surprising that novel secretions systems are continuously being discovered.
Neither is it surprising that we have limited knowledge on the secretory route for many known secretory proteins.
Secreted proteins for which we lack information on the secretory route or where the secretory pathway is yet to be discovered are termed non-classical secretory proteins. Identification of new secretory pathways continuously move previously termed non-classical secretory proteins into new well-defined secretion systems.
Many proteins secreted via alternative routes are involved in pathogenesis. Secreted Proteins and Virulence in Salmonella enterica Michael Hensel Secreted proteins are of major importance for the pathogenesis of infectious diseases caused by the facultative intracellular gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica.
A remarkable large number of fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins are present in Salmonella and mediate biofilm formation as well as the intimate contact to host cells.
The host cell invasion and intracellular proliferation are two hallmarks of Salmonella pathogenesis. Effectors translocated by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 SPI1 -T3SS mainly act on the host cell actin cytoskeleton resulting in the invasion of non-phagocytic cells.
After entry, Salmonella resides in the so-called Salmonella-containing vacuole, from which translocation of a second set of effector proteins by the SPI2-T3SS initiated. The function of the SPI2-T3SS results intracellular replication and the modification of host cell vesicular traffic involving microtubules.
Although classical exotoxins are not known as major virulence determinants of Salmonella, recent data suggest a role of toxins encoded by the Salmonella virulence plasmid. The concerted action of various secreted proteins allows Salmonella to breach multiple barriers of host defense resulting in systemic infection and be development of a carrier state in some infected individuals. McCann, Sherry Kurtz, and Miriam Braunstein As with other bacterial pathogens, surface and secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are important to virulence.
Many of these M. There is also an increasing list of extracytoplasmic proteins proven to have a function in the virulence of M. In this Chapter, we review the current understanding of the protein transport systems of M. Oldfield and Karl G. Wooldridge Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis that frequently colonizes poultry and contaminates their products. The high incidence of clinical disease associated with this bacterium, its low infective dose in humans and its potentially serious sequelae confirm its importance as a major public health hazard.
Despite the medical and economic importance of C. Here, we present an overview of protein secretion in C. Both Sec dependent and TAT secretion systems are present.
Of the protein secretion pathways that are widely disseminated among Gram-negative bacteria, only the type V autotransporter and a plasmid-encoded type IV-secretion system have been reported in C. A type II-like system involved in natural competence, a functional flagella export apparatus and an uncharacterized system mediating cytolethal distending toxin secretion are also discussed.
Despite the fact that protein secretion is a key factor in virulence of a pathogen, fewer studies have been dedicated to pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria and L.
Among the six protein secretion systems identified in L. The 16 secreted virulence effectors characterised to date are either i associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, i.
Identification of several candidates as putative secreted virulence factors as well as the availability in the near future of large amount of Listeria genomic data from different sequencing projects are the promess of very exciting time in the field of listerial protein secretion and should provide further insights on how L.
Turner, Karl G. Wooldridge and Dlawer A. Ala'Aldeen Neisseria meningitidis is the agent of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia: two devastating human diseases.
It is becoming apparent that secreted proteins are likely to play important roles in meningococcal disease and, furthermore, meningococcal secreted proteins may constitute attractive components of vaccines or targets of therapeutic intervention.
The meningococcus has been shown to secrete a large number of proteins, some of which are capable of modulating host cell gene expression. Sounds yummy, doesn't it? Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by all mammals.
But all mammals need to obtain the essential amino acids from dietary sources. By definition, animals are excluded as a proper source of protein. There is no protein "benefit" found in consuming the flesh or byproducts of other mammals. The digestive strain this puts on your body leads way to a host of unpleasant diseases and overall discomfort.TatA mediates the actual translocation event, but it is unclear whether it does so by forming the pore-like structures that it displays when purified to homogeneity.
Joel Fuhrman, M. There is no other book on the market which will give you the answers you want to every possible question about protein, in simple-to-understand language and with an extensive list of the most recent and relevant studies pertaining to human nutrition.
Full-fat cheese is high in both protein and fat while fat-free cheese is almost pure protein. Dietary protein provides both.
Protein Powders Chapter
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